Approach the JIT operation, there is a set of good practices that ships and ship managers could follow. It is proposed that the following sets of guidelines should be observed for this purpose:
- Avoid waiting periods in all phases of a voyage or modes of operation (loading, discharging, bunkering, early arrival, late departure, etc.).
- Aim for early communications with the next port in order to give maximum notice of berth availability and facilitate the use of optimum speed.
- Encourage good communications between fleet department, master and charterer in support of JIT operation.
- Improve cargo handling operation and avoid delays at berth to the extent possible. Cargo handling in most cases is under the control of the port and optimum solutions matched to ship and port requirements should be explored.
- Operate at constant shaft RPM while en route and avoid sprint-loiter phases.
- When leaving ports or estuaries, increase the shaft rpm gradually in harmony with increases in ship speed.
- Avoid going fast in shallow waters. Reduce speed in shallow water if possible.
- Measure, monitor and report the “ship duty cycle” in terms of time duration in various phases of operation, including period of times in passage, port, waiting, bunkering, etc.
- Perform benchmarking of the “ship duty cycle” against the fleet and similar ships; this will help with continuous improvement (MariEMS 2017).